The Armenian civilization had its beginnings nearly 5,000 years ago.

Armenians consider themselves direct descendants of Noah, survivor of the Biblical flood. According to Genesis, …the boat came to rest on a mountain in the Ararat range. Ararat, located in the heart of Armenia, was a Holy Mountain for the peoples of the ancient world. 

The Armenians, an Indo-European people, first appear in history shortly after the end of the 7th century BC, driving some of the ancient population to the east of Mount Ararat, where they were known to the Greeks as “Araratians”; i.e., Urartians.

Republic of Armenia (Armenia)

Flag of ArmeniaCoat of arms of Armenia

Republic of Armenia

Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Armenia

Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. The Constitution was adopted on July 5, 1995, and was amended as a result of national referendums on November 27, 2005, and on December 6, 2015.

Capital: Yerevan

Date of Establishment: 21.09.1991 – it’s the day of the referendum on the independence of Armenia. Based on the results of the referendum, where 99% of the population voted for the independence, the Parliament of the country declared the Republic of Armenia an independent state. September 21 is celebrated as the Independence Day. Before that, the Supreme Council of the Armenian SSR passed the Declaration of Independence.

 

Geographical information

 Location:

in the South: 38o 50′ Northern Latitude;
in the North: 41o 18′ Northern Latitude:
in the West: 43o 27′ Eastern Longitude;
in the East: 46o 37′ Eastern Longitude.

Neighboring Countries:

in the North – Georgia;
in the East – Azerbaijan;
in the South – Iran;
in the South-West – Nakhijevan (Azerbaijan);
in the West – Turkey.

Territory: 29.74 thousand square kilometers

Average Altitude Above Sea Level: 1,800 meters

Highest Mountain Peak: Aragats (4,090 meters)

Natural Resources: Armenia is rich in copper, iron, bauxite, molybdenum, gold, silver, lead and zinc. Substantial deposits of pumice, marble, tufa, perlite, limestone, basalt and salt also exist. Precious and semi-precious stones are abundant.

Climate: Dry, continental, average temperature in summer – +30+35Co, in winter – -15-20Co

Demographics

Population: 2986.1 thousand (as of January 1, 2017)

Ethnic Breakdown: Armenians – 98.1%
Minorities: Russians, Yezidis, Kurds, Assyrians, Greeks, Ukrainians, Jews and others

Official Language: Armenian

Currency: Dram (AMD)

Religion: The vast majority of the population are Christians

Church: Armenian Apostolic

Religious Center: St. Etchmiadzin, the Cathedral of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Residence of the Catholicos (Patriarch) of all Armenians

Source: www.gov.am

Historical overview

Modern Armenia comprises only a small portion of ancient Armenia, one of the world’s oldest centres of civilization. The Armenians, an Indo-European people, first appear in history shortly after the end of the 7th century BC, driving some of the ancient population to the east of Mount Ararat, where they were known to the Greeks as “Araratians”; i.e., Urartians. At its height, Armenia extended from the south-central Black Sea coast to the Caspian Sea and from the Mediterranean Sea to Lake Urmia in present-day Iran.

King Artashes (reigned 190–159 BC) built his capital, Artashat, on the Aras River near modern Yerevan. It was only under Tigranes II  (the Great; 95–55 BCE) that the division of Armenia into eastern and western parts, a unity that was to last almost 500 years.

Prominent Armenian dynasties at the time were Yervanduni dynasty, Artashesyan dynasty, Arshakuni dynasty and Bagratuni dynasty. On the collapse of Greater Armenia, many Armenians emigrated to Georgia, Poland, and Galicia, while others crossed into Cilicia, the coast of the Mediterranean sea, where some colonies had already settled at the end of the 10th century.

The country was the first in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.

The country restored statehood on May 28, 1918, and in 1922 Armenia became part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. With the rise of the reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Armenians organized a massive nationalist movement focused on recovering Nagorno-Karabakh for Armenia. This movement grew into a popular democratic organization, the Armenian National Movement (ANM). In the 1990 elections, the ANM won a majority in parliament. Armenia declared sovereignty on August 23, 1990, and independence on September 23, 1991.

Source: www.britannica.com

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